Guidelines and other Documents

INTOSAI Framework of Professional Pronouncement Guidance

GUID 5250 – Guidance on the Audit of Public Debt


Guidelines for Public Debt Management (WB / IMF)

Amendments to the Guidelines for Public Debt Management

Case Studies

The Zambian Project

Paradigmatic Audits

AUSTRIAParadigmatic Audit concerning Risk Management of Short-Term Investments
(Rechnungshof, June, 2010)

The objective of the audit was to compare and evaluate the credit and debt instruments as well as the financing strategies and resulting risks of the public authorities on the federal level, of different lands, as well as of other municipalities. Main focus was laid on the financing management of the federal authorities.

The audit covered the period from 2002 until 2006. Additionally, essential developments of the years 2007 and 2008 were also taken into account.

UKRAINEThe Main Audit Results of Ukraine’s System of Public Debt Management (Accounting Chamber of Ukraine, June 21, 2007)

Since its foundation in 1996, the Accounting Chamber of Ukraine has been constantly paying attention to public debt issues. External debt restructuring in 2001-2003 has drawn a considerable attention to the problem of public debt management. The necessity for comprehensive research of the public debt management system has appeared and this presentation summarizes the Accounting Chamber of Ukraine’s audit work to assess the state of Public Debt Management System and its compliance with the generally accepted international standards and practices in this field.

UNITED KINGDOMThe UK Debt Management Office – Borrowing on behalf of Government (UK National Audit Office, June 21, 2007)

The National Audit Office reports on a review carried out to the UK Debt Management Office (DMO)’s activities and reporting arrangements. The DMO is an executive agency of the Treasury, which was established on April 1, 1998 in order to borrow funds on behalf of government through the issue of gilts and Treasury bills.

RUSSIAN FEDERATIONAnalysis of Internal Public Debt of the Russian Federation (Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation, June 16, 2007)

Brief information on the Analysis of Internal Public Debt of the Russian Federation carried out by the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation for the period of 2004 to 2006

LITHUANIAPublic Audit Report on Public Debt Management (National Audit Office of the Republic of Lithuania, July 30, 2007)

The National Audit Office of Lithuania assessed the efficiency of the debt taken on behalf of government management strategy and public money (including borrowed funds) management in 2006. With this public audit report, the SAI of Lithuania recommends its Government to review on a regular basis the State Strategy of a Medium-term Debt Management by reviewing debt management objectives and indicators; to consider possibility to make a legal provision of using surplus budget revenues after the public sector achieves a zero balance for reducing of public debt.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICADebt Management – Backup Funding Options Would Enhance Treasury’s Resilience to a Financial Market Disruption (US Government Accountability Office, September 2006, GAO-06-1007, available in

This performance audit examines how the U.S. Treasury could obtain funds during a future potential wide-scale financial market disruption.
GAO examined (1) steps Treasury and others took during the September 11, 2001 attacks and after to assure required debt obligations and payments were made on time and ensure liquidity in the markets, (2) major actions Treasury and others have taken since the attacks to increase the resiliency of the auction process, and (3) the opinions of relevant parties on the main design features of any backup funding options. GAO issued recommendations to the Treasury and Congress to expand the backup funding options during a catastrophic emergency.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICADebt Management – Treasury Has Refined Its Use of Cash Management Bills but Should Explore Options That May Reduce Cost Further (US Government Accountability Office, March 2007, GAO-06-269, available in

This performance audit examines the Department of the Treasury’s growing use of unscheduled, high-cost cash management bills (CM bills) to obtain funding for expected large payments at the beginning of each month. GAO describes (1) when Treasury uses CM bills and why, (2) the advantages and disadvantages of CM bills, and (3) steps taken by Treasury to reduce the overall borrowing costs associated with CM bills.
GAO identifies possible options Treasury could consider to reduce the use and cost of CM bills further.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICAFinancial Audit – Bureau of the Public Debt’s Fiscal Years 2006 and 2005 Schedules of Federal Debt (US Government Accountability Office, November 2007, GAO-07-127, available in

This financial audit is part of mandated GAO audit of the US government’s consolidated financial statements. GAO has also been auditing the Bureau of the Public Debt*s (BPD) Schedules of Federal Debt annually for 10 years. The audit of these schedules is done to determine whether, in all material respects, (1) the schedules are reliable and (2) BPD management maintained effective internal control relevant to the Schedule of Federal Debt. Further, we test compliance with selected provisions of significant laws related to the Schedule of Federal Debt.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICAFederal Debt – Answers to Frequently Asked Questions (US Government Accountability Office, 2004, GAO-04-485-SP, available in

This primer on US federal debt presents current information on how federal debt is defined and measured, the relationship between federal debt and the budget and the economy, federal debt management and ownership, and future policy issues regarding federal debt. The goal of the primer is to provide the information in a clear, concise, and easily understandable manner for a non-technical audience.

ZAMBIAMemorandum by the Auditor General Office – Study on the National Debt Contraction Process and Debt Management in Zambia (Office of the Auditor General of Zambia, April 2005)

Memorandum to the Parliament’s Committee on Economic Affairs and Labour on the National Debt Contraction Process and Debt Management in Zambia, which includes detained information on the legal and regulatory framework, the role of the Auditor General, the procedures followed in the National Debt Procurement in the past 15 years, accordance of the procedures with laid down legislation and regulations, effectiveness level of the process of national debt management, and proposed appropriate legislative reform measures.

ZAMBIAAudit of Accounts for the financial year 2004 (Office of the Auditor General of Zambia, November 11, 2005)

Report on the audited accounts to determine whether public debt elements were recorded properly, authorized by law or executive regulations, and disclosed in a timely, consistent and transparent manner. The audit report particularly focused on State Owned Enterprises (SOE)-related issues (performance, liquidation, government participation and management).

FIJI Report of the Auditor General of the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Office of the Auditor – General of the Republic of Fiji Islands, September 2006)

Office of the Auditor – General’s last Audit Report (year 2005) to Parliament highlighting issues on Public Debt.

NEW ZEALANDEffectiveness of the New Zealand Debt Management Office (Office of the Auditor General of New Zealand, June 2007)

Performance Audit Report from the OAG of New Zealand on the effectiveness of the NZ Debt Management Office.